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Sermon No: 42186-What does "After its kind" mean



Gavin-Paynter/WHAT-DOES-AFTER-ITS-KIND-MEAN.jpg

SERMON TOPIC: What does "After its kind" mean

Speaker: Gavin Paynter

Language: ENGLISH

Date: 1 February 2019

Topic Groups: CREATIONISM, GENESIS, APOLOGETICS

Sermon synopsis: Repeatedly in the creation account (Gen 1:11,12,21,24, 25) we are told that God created plants and animals ACCORDING TO THEIR KIND. These passages seem to imply that no kind of animal or plant would produce offspring outside of its created kind.
- The idea is that there was no single ancestor for all living organisms (as evolutionists hold).
- Yet there was the ability for diversification within the different “kinds” of plants and creatures.

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WHAT DOES “AFTER ITS KIND” MEAN?

Gen 1:11 (NASB) Then God said, “Let the land produce vegetation: seed-bearing plants and trees on the land that bear fruit with seed in it, according to their various kinds.” And it was so.

PLANTS

Gen 1:21 (NASB) So God created the great creatures of the sea and every living thing with which the water teems and that moves about in it, according to their kinds, and every winged bird according to its kind

SEA & FLYING CREATURES

Gen 1:24 (NASB) And God said, “Let the land produce living creatures according to their kinds: the livestock, the creatures that move along the ground, and the wild animals, each accord- ing to its kind.”

LAND CREATURES

Repeatedly in the creation account (Gen 1:11,12,21,24, 25) we are told that God created plants and animals ACCORDING TO THEIR KIND.

These passages seem to imply that no kind of animal or plant would produce offspring outside of its created kind.

The idea is that there was no single ancestor for all living organisms (as evolutionists hold).

Yet there was the ability for diversification within the different “kinds” of plants and creatures.

AFTER ITS KIND

Creationists agree that the term “after its kind” refers to a distinct barrier between different types of living organisms and a limitation on variation.

Dr. Georgia Purdom stated that a kind “represents the basic reproductive boundary of an organism. That is, the offspring of an organism is always the same kind as its parents, even though it may display considerable variation.” 1

This variation is important so animals can fill the earth and adapt to the different environments that exist today. However, evolution (in a molecules-to-man sense) would be impossible since one kind of animal could never give rise to an entirely different kind. 1

1 "https:// answersingenesis.org/ creation-science/baraminology/what-does-two-of-every-kind-mean/">https:// answersingenesis.org/ creation-science/baraminology/what-does-two-of-every-kind-mean/

AFTER ITS KIND

The apocryphal book of Sirach 1 indicates that a wolf and a lamb were considered to be two different kinds, as were dogs and hyena, 2 and lions and donkeys. The application to class distinction in humans is, of course, metaphorical.

Sirach 13:15-18 Every creature prefers its own kind [min], and people are no different. Just as animals of the same species [min] flock together, so people keep company with people like themselves [min]. A sinner has no more in common with a devout person than a wolf has with a lamb. Rich people have no more in common with poor people than hyenas have with dogs. The rich hunt down the poor just as lions hunt down wild donkeys in the open country.

1 Also called Ecclesiasticus 2 Dogs are Canis lupus familiaris while hyenas are Crocuta crocuta. They are different species and can not interbreed. Hyenas are more closely related to cats than canines despite their appearance.

AFTER ITS KIND

"https:// answersingenesis.org/ blogs/ken-ham/2014/02/12/post-debate-potpourri-part-one">https:// answersingenesis.org/ blogs/ken-ham/2014/02/12/post-debate-potpourri-part-one

DIVERSIFICATION WITHIN THE KIND (MICRO-EVOLUTION)

MACRO-EVOLUTION)

The creationary phylogenetic tree is similar to the evolutionary tree, but bears two important differences.

While the evolutionary tree traces life back to a single cell (MACRO-EVOLUTION), the creation biology tree traces life back to a number of unrelated populations that roughly resembled the forms of life today (MICRO-EVOLUTION). 1

While the evolutionary tree credits evolutionary change to an increase in genetic diversity from simpler to more complex organisms, the creation biology tree credits small mutational change to the rearrangement and expression of genetic variation that was “built in” to the original kinds . 1

1 "http:// nwcreation.net/biblicalkinds.html">http:// nwcreation.net/biblicalkinds.html

AFTER ITS KIND

E.g. Today we can find hares in the arctic, hares in the desert, and hares in other parts of the world.

Desert hare, large ears for cooling, sand-coloured fur.

Arctic hare - fat that makes up 20% of its body and a thick coat of fur which is snow coloured (camouflage).

Although each species is a little different, enabling it to thrive in its environment, they are still all recognizable as hares and would be descended from a single pair on the Ark. 1

1 Ibid

VARIATION IN KIND

Dogs have been bred for thousands of years, sometimes by inbreeding dogs from the same ancestral lines, while at other times by mixing dogs from very different lines. This has resulted in a widening in appearance while still being the same species.

VARIATION IN KIND

Although each kind is distinct from other kinds, God has allowed for amazing variations within the kinds e.g. chicken breeds all belong to the same kind. 1

1 Ibid.

VARIATION IN KIND

Horses of all shapes and sizes are of the same kind. 1

1 Ibid.

VARIATION IN KIND

Evolutionists constantly attempt to bring up the straw man argument that we believe in species stasis. 1

It looks like God engineered into life the ability to change DNA. This occurs through homologous crossover, jumping genes (retrotransposons, 21 ALUs, etc.), and other means (including the random DNA spelling errors generally called ‘mutations’). 1

There could be a considerable amount of information stored in the genome in compressed, hidden form. When this information is decompressed, deciphered, revealed, or unscrambled (call it what you will), this cannot be used as evidence for evolution, since the information was already stored in the genome. 1

1 "https:// creation.com/ mutations-new-information">https:// creation.com/ mutations-new-information Dr Robert W. Carter

MUTATIONS

Can mutation create new information? Yes, depending on what you mean by ‘information’. Also, ‘new’ does not necessarily imply ‘better’ or even ‘good’. 1

When evolutionists cite examples of ‘new’ information, they are almost invariably citing evidence of new traits, but these traits are caused by the corruption of existing information. Mutations can create new varieties of old genes, as can be seen in white-coated lab mice, tailless cats, and blue-eyed people. 1

But damaging mutations cannot be used to vindicate molecules-to-people evolution. Breaking things does not lead to higher function (and presupposes a pre-existing function that can be broken). 1

1 Ibid.

MUTATIONS

Also, not all new traits are caused by mutation! Some come about by unscrambling pre-existing information, some from decompressing packed information, some from turning on and off certain genes. 1

Many creationists believe that change within a population is accomplished only through the rearrangement of pre-existing information or the degradation of the created genome.

Others assert that organisms were designed with a molecular machinery capable of editing genes, adding new alleles to the population, which generates diversity. 2

1 Ibid. 2 "http:// nwcreation.net/biblicalkinds.html">http:// nwcreation.net/biblicalkinds.html

REARRANGEMENT

It is generally agreed upon that (a) natural selection, (b) reproductive isolation (speciation), and (c) genetic drift are effective in leading to the formation of populations that are highly adapted to their environment. 1

(a) NATURAL SELECTION

Natural selection is not evolution... ‘Selection’ selects from something pre-existing; it selects out of; it is not ‘natural invention’. Therefore affirming natural selection and speciation is not the same thing as affirming evolution. 2

1 Ibid. 2 "https:// creation.com/ speciation-is-not-evolution">https:// creation.com/ speciation-is-not-evolution

NATURAL SELECTION

(b) GENETIC DRIFT

Typically, genetic drift occurs in small populations, where infrequently-occurring alleles face a greater chance of being lost. Once it begins, genetic drift will continue until the involved allele is either lost by a population or is the only allele present at a particular gene locus within a population.

(c) SPECIATION

Speciation is the formation of new and distinct species. It involves the splitting of a single genetic lineage into two or more genetically independent lineages.

GENETIC DRIFT, SPECIATION

Is speciation the same as evolution? Joel Tay writes:

The Biblical Creation model actually predicts and requires not just speciation, but rapid speciation! Creationists believe that after the Flood, each animal kind (baramin) rapidly diversified, over just a few thousand years, often forming new species in the process. But speciation is not evolution! In fact, we had written about how the rapid rate of speciation continues to astonish evolutionists in cases of new species of mosquitoes, weeds, and house mice. The idea that creationists do not believe in the formation of new species is a strawman argument often put forth by uninformed evolutionists… 1

1 "https:// creation.com/ speciation-is-not-evolution">https:// creation.com/ speciation-is-not-evolution

SPECIATION

Why can’t two genetically different species reproduce to give a viable offspring?

Because sexual reproduction requires matching up half the genes from both parents, and assembling a new, unique genome for the child. The process is analogous to a zip, where each parent unzips its genomes, exchanges half the zip with the other parent, and zips together the cross-matched pairs. But the zips have to line up. If the zips are similar, you get a baby. But if one zip has 1000 teeth and the other has 3000, nothing will line up. You’ll end up with 1000 pairs of nonsense and 2000 bits of debris.

ABILITY TO INTERBREED

In sexually reproducing organisms, fusion of gametes starts of the process of embryonic development. If union of gametes between two genetically distinct species takes place, there may be two situations -

Same number of chromosomes - Though the number of chromosomes are same, during the first mitosis, their centromeres may not be arranged in the same plane. As a result, cell division cycle arrest occurs, halting further development.

Different number of chromosomes - The extra chromosomes which are not paired lead to differential tension on the microtubules which again disrupts the cell division cycle. 1

1 "https:// biology.stackexchange.com/ questions/65085/why-cant-two-different-genetically-species-reproduce-to-give-a-viable-offspring">https:// biology.stackexchange.com/ questions/65085/why-cant-two-different-genetically-species-reproduce-to-give-a-viable-offspring

ABILITY TO INTERBREED

Hares (Lepus) have 24 pairs of chromosomes while the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus) has 22 and the cottontail (Sylvilagus) has 21 pairs. While mating is possible between the different species, the resulting embryos will die after a few cell divisions because of the differences in the number of chromosome pairs. 1

However, the inability to produce offspring does not necessarily rule out that the animals are of the same kind, since this may be the result of mutations (since the Fall). 2

The ability to freely interbreed was certainly true within the Ark kinds, but may not always be the case within the same kind today. 2

1 "https:// www.quora.com/ Can-you-cross-a-pet-rabbit-and-a-wild-hare">https:// www.quora.com/ Can-you-cross-a-pet-rabbit-and-a-wild-hare 2 "https:// answersingenesis.org/ creation-science/baraminology/what-are-kinds-in-genesis/">https:// answersingenesis.org/ creation-science/baraminology/what-are-kinds-in-genesis

SPECIATION

House mice… live all over the world (except Antarctica). Yet when certain populations interbreed at contact zones, the male offspring are usually sterile. For this reason, the populations are recognized as different subspecies (and some authors have considered them different species). Despite almost identical appearance, genetic differences have arisen that affect the fertility of many of the offspring. This makes it clear that barriers to reproduction have occurred within some created kinds. 1

1 "https:// answersingenesis.org/ creation-science/baraminology/what-does-two-of-every-kind-mean/">https:// answersingenesis.org/ creation-science/baraminology/what-does-two-of-every-kind-mean/

SPECIATION

Is the Biblical “kind” the same as a species?

No!

A species is a man-made term used in the modern classification system. And frankly, the word species is difficult to define, whether one is a creationist or not! 1

According to Wikipedia, a species is often defined as:

the largest group of organisms in which any two individuals of the appropriate sexes or mating types can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction... While this definition is often adequate, when looked at more closely it is problematic. 2

1 "https:// answersingenesis.org/ hybrid-animals/zonkeys-ligers-and-wolphins-oh-my/">https:// answersingenesis.org/ hybrid-animals/zonkeys-ligers-and-wolphins-oh-my/ 2 "https:// en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/ Species">https:// en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/ Species

SPECIES VS KIND

Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.

Carl Linnaeus, known as the “father of modern taxonomy”, was a Swedish botanist and zoologist who formalised the modern system of naming organisms. His system classified nature within a nested hierarchy, starting with 2 kingdoms (plant and animal), which were divided into classes and they, in turn, into orders, and thence into genera (singular: genus), which were divided into species. 1

1 "https:// en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/ Carl_Linnaeus">https:// en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/ Carl_Linnaeus

MODERN TAXONOMY

Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778)

In the Linnaean System, similar species are grouped into a genus, similar genera into a family, similar families into an order, similar orders into a class, similar classes into a phylum, and similar phyla into a kingdom. 1

Modern taxonomy has added some groupings that were not present in Linnaeus’ original system. As it was adapted in the 18th century, we must remember that this naming convention was not in use in Biblical times.

1 "https:// animals.howstuffworks.com/ dinosaurs/dinosaur-evolution1.htm">https:// animals.howstuffworks.com/ dinosaurs/dinosaur-evolution1.htm

MODERN TAXONOMY

HISTORY OF CLASSIFICATION

SOURCE: Robin Seamon, Environmental & Science Educator at Davie County Schools

To further complicate matters currently 2 taxonomic systems are used, the Linnaean system and cladistics. In palaeontology, the Linnaean system is rarely used - cladistics is more often employed.

Cladistics is a method of classifying organisms by (purported) common ancestry, based on the branching of the evolutionary family tree. Organisms that share common ancestors are grouped into groups called clades.

Phylogenetic systematics is a method of classification based on the supposed evolutionary history, dividing organisms into groups and subgroups. It was developed in 1950, but was not well accepted until decades later.

CLADISTICS

The Linnaean system has separate classes for reptiles, birds and mammals.

Mammals are warm-blooded, furry, have erect stance, give birth to live young and care for them, and replace their teeth only once.

Reptiles are cold-blooded, have scales, crawl (or slither e.g. snakes), lay eggs which they abandon (except Crocodylia), and grow new teeth their whole lives.

Birds are warm-blooded, feathered and fly (with flightless birds descending from flying ancestors), lay eggs and care for their young, have erect stance and a toothless beak. 1

1 "http:// palaeos.com/ systematics/taxonomy/incompatible.html">http:// palaeos.com/ systematics/taxonomy/incompatible.html

LINNAEAN vs CLADISTICS

In the Linnaean system, dinosaurs are related to reptiles; but in the cladistic system, birds evolved from dinosaurs, with their closest modern relatives being crocodiles! 1

A fossil of the small theropod dinosaur Sinocalliopteryx gigas found in Liaoning, China, was so well preserved that researchers were able to make out its intact stomach contents. They were able to see the last thing it had eaten—a bird dinner. They were even able to identify the species of the bird: Confuciusornis sanctus. A further two additional birds were found in the dinosaur’s stomach. 2

1 "https:// www.zmescience.com/ other/science-abc/birds-dinosaurs">https:// www.zmescience.com/ other/science-abc/birds-dinosaurs 2 "https:// creation.com/ 3-birds-in-a-dinosaur">https:// creation.com/ 3-birds-in-a-dinosaur

LINNAEAN vs CLADISTICS

Those promoting the cladistic paradigm say that over millions of years dinosaurs gave rise to birds, which in turn evolved the ability to fly. But birds did not evolve from dinosaurs. They were contemporaries.

The Confuciusornis birds in the dinosaur’s stomach were birds “capable of powered flight”, and also had a beak rather than teeth. And as this is not the first dinosaur discovered with bird remains in its belly, where does that leave the millions-of-years dino-to-bird scenario? 1

One bird had only been partially digested, indicating the sudden death of the dinosaur not long after its last meal. This fits in with the Creationist belief that fossilization of dinosaurs occurred suddenly during the Flood. 1

1 "https:// creation.com/ 3-birds-in-a-dinosaur">https:// creation.com/ 3-birds-in-a-dinosaur

LINNAEAN vs CLADISTICS

Baraminology is a field used by Creation scientists which classifies fossil and living organisms into baramins (created kinds) based on criteria such as DNA sequences and physical characteristics.

For living organisms, hybridization is a key criterion. If two animals can produce a hybrid, then they are considered to be of the same kind. 1

Thus, humans and frogs are considered to be different kinds because they are not reproductively compatible at all, while the African and European races are considered to be clearly of the same kind, because they are totally reproductively compatible. 2

1 "https:// answersingenesis.org/ hybrid-animals/zonkeys-ligers-and-wolphins-oh-my">https:// answersingenesis.org/ hybrid-animals/zonkeys-ligers-and-wolphins-oh-my 2 "http:// nwcreation.net/biblicalkinds.html">http:// nwcreation.net/biblicalkinds.html

BARAMINOLOGY

In contrast to the evolutionary principle of common ancestry, creation biologists argue that organisms were created in a finite number of discrete forms as described in the Bible, which subsequently diversified through speciation and microevolution. 1

To identify whether a particular variety was created or evolved, baraminologists compare living organisms with those visible in the fossil record (which creationists interpret as having mostly been laid down during the flood). Creationists recognize that organisms change dramatically over time, and many new species have developed since the creation. 1

1 Ibid.

MICROEVOLUTION

Assigning the kinds to a particular level of the modern taxonomic hierarchy has proved problematic, as evolutionary assumptions have influenced the classification system. As a result, the kinds do not coincide on a consistent basis with any particular taxonomy level. 1

Modern taxonomic terms like family is more often closely parallel to the biblical word “kind” while for others like humans it coincides with the genus level (homo).

1 Ibid.

SPECIES VS KIND

E.g. The full Linnaean classification for a lion would be:

Domain: Eukarya (multicellular organisms) Kingdom: Animalia (animals) Phylum: Chordata (vertebrates) Class: Mammalia (mammals) Order: Carnivora (meat eaters) Family: Felidae (all cats) Genus: Panthera (great cats) Species: Leo (lions)

But the cat “kind” is most likely an equivalent for the family “Felidae”

SPECIES VS KIND

Cat KIND=Felidae FAMILY?

The differences between a Chihuahua and Great Dane illustrate some of the tremendous variations seen within domestic dog breeds.

But dogs belong to a greater family (Canidae) that can often interbreed.

DOG SPECIES

While some of the jackals and all of the foxes cannot interbreed with the others (due to speciation), domestic dogs, wolves, coyotes, dingoes and some jackals can still interbreed.

When dog-relatives breed together, you get dogs; so there is a “dog kind”. But dogs can never breed with cats, because they are a different kind.

Dog KIND=Canidae FAMILY?

The same is true for many other kinds of animals; they are found worldwide but are obviously related. This brings up the problem of equating kinds to the modern-day word species as used in taxonomy. 1

From a biblical perspective, though, land animals like wolves, zebras, sheep, lions, and so on have at least two ancestors that lived on Noah’s Ark, only about 4,300 years ago. These animals have undergone many changes since that time. But dogs are still part of the dog kind, cats are still part of the cat kind, and so on. God placed variety within the original kinds, and other variation has occurred since the Fall due to genetic alterations. 1

1 "https:// answersingenesis.org/ hybrid-animals/zonkeys-ligers-and-wolphins-oh-my">https:// answersingenesis.org/ hybrid-animals/zonkeys-ligers-and-wolphins-oh-my

SPECIES VS KIND

In the plant kingdom hybrids can be formed, so this ability to cross breed indicates that the source species are from the same created kind.

The banana plant is a hybrid, originating from the mismatched pairing of two South Asian wild plant species: Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana.

Between these two products of nature, the former produces unpalatable fruit flesh, and the latter is far too seedy for enjoyable consumption.

PLANT HYBRIDS

The pomelo, a tropical fruit, crossed with an orange to result in the hybrid, grapefruit. The grapefruit really never found commercial success until 1929 when producers developed and patented the Ruby Red strain.

Broccoli is MAN MADE. More than 2,000 years ago, it was created by Italian farmers by carefully breeding different types of wild cabbage.

PLANT HYBRIDS

Cultivation is the process whereby humans deliberately encourage the reproduction of plant species by interfering with them in some way. This allows some plants to be grown beyond their natural range and genetic changes to accumulate that further increase the plant’s usefulness.

E.g. Wild carrot is the progenitor of the cultivated carrot… and the two subspecies are sexually compatible. The cultivated carrot was likely domesticated in Central Asia roughly 1,100 years ago and is grown worldwide from both open pollinated and hybrid seed. 1

1 "http:// www.carrotmuseum.co.uk/wild.html">http:// www.carrotmuseum.co.uk/wild.html

PLANT HYBRIDS

Hybrid animals are the result of the mating of two animals of the same “kind.”

One of the most well- known hybrids is the mule, the offspring of a male donkey (jack) and a female horse (mare).

EQUIDAE HYBRIDS

Horses and donkeys are different species within the family Equidae and have different numbers of chromosomes. Both male and female hybrid offspring (mules) are usually sterile.

Hybrid animals are usually the result of parent animals that have similar chromosome numbers. Many times the hybrids are infertile due to an uneven chromosome number that affects the production of eggs and sperm. However, this is not always the case, as even some mules have been known to reproduce. 2 Pregnancy in female mule (a molly) is rare, but can occasionally occur naturally as well as through embryo transfer. 1

1 "https:// en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/ Mule">https:// en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/ Mule 2 "https:// answersingenesis.org/ hybrid-animals/zonkeys-ligers-and-wolphins-oh-my">https:// answersingenesis.org/ hybrid-animals/zonkeys-ligers-and-wolphins-oh-my

EQUIDAE HYBRIDS

Zonkeys (from a male zebra bred with a female donkey), zorses (male zebra and female horse), and hebras (male horse and female zebra) are all examples of hybrid animals. The fact that hybrids can be formed, even though many or most are infertile, lets us know they are from the same created kind. 1

1 Ibid.

Zorse (offspring of a zebra and a horse)

Zonkey (offspring of a zebra and a donkey)

Hybrids also result due to mating within the family Felidae.

Ligers are the result of mating a male lion and a female tiger… Tigons are the result of mating a female lion and a male tiger. These matings only occur in captivity, since lions live in Africa, tigers live in Asia, and the two are enemies in the wild. Female hybrids are typically fertile while male hybrids are not. 1

1 "https:// answersingenesis.org/ hybrid-animals/zonkeys-ligers-and-wolphins-oh-my/">https:// answersingenesis.org/ hybrid-animals/zonkeys-ligers-and-wolphins-oh-my/

FELIDAE HYBRIDS

Ligers are the largest cats in the world, weighing over 450 kg.

Other hybrids in this family include bobcats that mate with domestic cats (Blynx) and bobcats with lynx (Lynxcat). There have been mixes of the cougar and the ocelot, as well as many others. 1

This shows that large, midsize and small cats can ultimately interbreed, and therefore, suggests that there is only one cat kind. 1

1 Ibid.

Caracats are a new hybrid. Created in 2007, they’re a cross between caracals (“desert lynxes”) and Abyssinian cats.

FELIDAE HYBRIDS

In the family Delphinidae the wholphin is the result of mating a false killer whale (genus Pseudorca) and bottlenose dolphin (genus Tursiops).

As the wholphin is fertile, it shows the difficulty of determining the species designation, since a major criterion is the ability to interbreed and produce fertile offspring. Even though the whale and dolphin are considered separate genera, they may, in fact, belong to the same species. This shows how difficult it is to define the term species. 1

1 Ibid.

A 'wholphin' — a cross between a whale and a dolphin — has been discovered in the sea off Hawaii.

DELPHINIDAE HYBRIDS

All of these animals’ ancestors—horses, donkey, zebras, tigers, lions, whales, and dolphins—were created with genetic diversity. Through time the processes of natural selection, mutation, and other mechanisms have altered that original information (decreased or degenerated) to give us even more variation within a kind. 1

Great variety can be observed in the offspring of animals of the same kind, just as the same cake recipe can be used to make many different cakes with various flavours and colours. Hybrids have a portion of the same genetic information as their parents but combined in a unique way to give a very unique looking animal. 1

1 Ibid.

ANIMAL HYBRIDS

In order to preserve all life, Noah was instructed to take all the different “kinds” of animals aboard the ark.

Take with you seven pairs of every kind of clean animal, a male and its mate, and one pair of every kind of unclean animal, a male and its mate, and also seven pairs of every kind of bird, male and female, to keep their various kinds alive throughout the earth. [Gen 7:2-3, NIV]

In the end it is important to recognize that different species names are often applied to animals descended from the same created kind. This is largely the consequence of differences that have arisen within kinds as they have reproduced and filled the earth, adapting to many distinct environments. 1

The original kinds created to reproduce and fill the earth, have undergone some physical and genetic changes as they adapted.

Modern taxonomists are not trying to identify kinds; they use definitions that identify distinct groups within created kinds. But this isn’t the only cause for confusion. Let’s take a look at two more of these reasons. 1

1 "https:// answersingenesis.org/ creation-science/baraminology/what-does-two-of-every-kind-mean/">https:// answersingenesis.org/ creation-science/baraminology/what-does-two-of-every-kind-mean/

SPECIES VS KIND

Difficulties in Translation

When translating a word from one language to another, there is often not an exact match between the two languages. When translating from Hebrew, or any other language, translators must make a decision as to which word or phrase most accurately conveys the meaning of the original terms. One of the difficulties involved here is that our modern scientific taxonomy did not exist when these words were written down, so the biblical writer was not thinking in terms of Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species. Let’s take a look at a portion of the Flood narrative in Genesis to see how this affects the translation process: 1

1 "https:// answersingenesis.org/ creation-science/baraminology/what-does-two-of-every-kind-mean/">https:// answersingenesis.org/ creation-science/baraminology/what-does-two-of-every-kind-mean/

SPECIES VS KIND

Gen 6:19–20, 7:3 (NKJV) And of every living thing of all flesh you shall bring two of every sort into the ark, to keep them alive with you; they shall be male and female. Of the birds after their kind, of animals after their kind, and of every creeping thing of the earth after its kind, two of every kind will come to you to keep them alive… to keep the species alive on the face of all the earth.

The NKJV includes three different classification terms in this passage: sort, kind, and species. The word sort in v. 19 is not translated specifically from a Hebrew word in this verse, but was added for readability’s sake, which is why it appears in italics in the NKJV. Kind was chosen to translate the Hebrew word “min”. This Hebrew term refers to “a type of entity in contrast to other entities” 

SPECIES VS KIND

 and every biblical usage is in the context of a taxonomic system. Species is an unfortunate translation of “zera”. This word is regularly translated as “seed” or “descendants,” a point that is acknowledged in a textual note in the NKJV. The wording, “to keep the species alive” (NKJV) may be more readable in English than “to keep seed alive” (KJV). Yet, this word choice ultimately confuses the issue. While the context helps the reader understand what is being taught, it becomes easy for the reader to conflate the English terms kind and species, thus giving the undiscerning reader the impression that the two terms mean the same thing. Many other translations are more helpful here using offspring instead of species in Genesis 7:3 to render “zera”. 1

1 Ibid.

SPECIES VS KIND

Intentional Ignorance

I am sure the NKJV translators did not intend to contribute to the confusion on this matter, but the same cannot be said for the many sceptics… We often hear sceptics claim that there are anywhere between 10–100 million species of plants and animals on Earth, and then ridicule the ideas that all the animal species could fit on the Ark and be taken care of by eight people. There are multiple problems with this type of attack. 1

These sceptics refuse to acknowledge the difference between kind and species. They mock the Biblical term kind, since it is not one of the modern scientific terms, implying that it is some sort of pseudo-science. 

1 Ibid.

SPECIES VS KIND

 So they assume that Noah would have needed to bring 2 wolves, 2 dingoes, 2 foxes, 2 coyotes, 2 jackals and so on. But the term ‘species’ is a modern concept.

Noah just needed to bring a pair of the original dog kind from which all modern species have been developed naturally or through breeding.

The same would be true with horses, donkeys, and zebras—Noah just needed 2 of the horse kind.

All different types of domestic cattle (clean animals) are descended from the Aurochs, so there were probably at most 7 (or 14) domestic cattle aboard. The Aurochs itself may have been descended from a cattle kind including bison and water buffaloes. 1

1 "https:// creation.com/ how-did-all-the-animals-fit-on-noahs-ark">https:// creation.com/ how-did-all-the-animals-fit-on-noahs-ark

SPECIES VS KIND

Gen 7:14- 15 (NASB) They had with them every wild animal according to its kind, all livestock according to their kinds, every creature that moves along the ground according to its kind and every bird according to its kind, everything with wings. Pairs of all creatures that have the breath of life in them came to Noah and entered the ark.

The number of species cited by sceptics is vastly exaggerated. Evolutionary researchers announced in a recent article in the journal Science that the number of species of plants and animals on the planet is around 5 million, give or take 3 million. They state that 1.5 million have been named. 1 So according to these researchers, the number of species on Earth is between 2 to 8 million.

The number cited by sceptics is misleading in another way. The vast majority of these species are marine organisms, plants, or insects. Noah clearly did not need to bring marine animals on the Ark. He was not commanded to bring all plant species, and he may not have needed to bring insects either. 1

1 "https:// answersingenesis.org/ creation-science/baraminology/what-does-two-of-every-kind-mean">https:// answersingenesis.org/ creation-science/baraminology/what-does-two-of-every-kind-mean

SPECIES VS KIND

The concept of kind is important for understanding how Noah fit all the animals on the Ark. If kind is at the level of family/order, there would have been plenty of room on the Ark to take two of every kind and seven of some. 1

A detailed study in the 1990s by Dr. John Woodmorappe used “worst-case scenario” estimates to calculate that fewer than 8,000 kinds would have been on board. 1

Over the past several years, some creationist researchers have been involved in extensive study of the original animal kinds, and their estimate is even lower—less than 2,000 kinds of animals that would need to be on board. 1

But how did dinosaurs fit on the ark if they were so large?

1 Ibid.

SPECIES VS KIND

Even though many different dinosaurs have been identified, using fossil evidence, creation scientists think there are only about 50 “kinds” of dinosaurs.

DINOSAURS

Even though breeding studies are impossible with dinosaurs, by studying fossils one can ascertain that there was likely one Ceratopsian kind with variation in that kind and so on. 1

Not only were there fewer “kinds” of dinosaurs than there are known species, they could have taken infant animals on the Ark for the sake of space.

1 Ibid.

DINOSAURS

Replica infant dinosaurs on Ken Ham’s Ark at an AiG theme park in Kentucky.

Some (like Ken Ham) argue that Noah was instructed to take “one pair of every kind of unclean animal” (Gen 7:3) and thus there must have been dinosaurs on the Ark. They believe that references to “dragons” in folklore refer to these dinosaurs which existed after the Flood.

But others believe that animals like dinosaurs were not even on the ark. They could well have died out at the Flood.

Some believe that the Watchers not only modified human DNA (as in the case of the Nephilim) but animals as well. Could it be that dinosaurs were some mutant breed (similar to the Nephilim corrupt “breed” of man) that were created by the Watchers. Thus like the Nephilim this corrupted seed was destroyed at the Flood.

DINOSAURS

The Book of Jubilees 5:1-2 also possibly alludes to this.

And it came to pass when the children of men began to multiply on the face of the earth and daughters were born unto them, that the angels of God saw them on a certain year of this jubilee, that they were beautiful to look upon; and they took themselves wives of all whom they chose, and they bare unto them sons and they were giants. And lawlessness increased on the earth and all flesh corrupted its way, alike men and cattle and beasts and birds and everything that walks on the earth -all of them corrupted their ways and their orders, and they began to devour each other, and lawlessness increased on the earth and every imagination of the thoughts of all men (was) thus evil continually.

DINOSAURS

Also note Book of Jubilees 7:21-25.

For owing to these three things came the flood upon the earth, namely, owing to the fornication wherein the Watchers against the law of their ordinances went a whoring after the daughters of men, and took themselves wives of all which they chose: and they made the beginning of uncleanness… And after this they sinned against the beasts and birds, and all that moves and walks on the earth: and much blood was shed on the earth, and every imagination and desire of men imagined vanity and evil continually. And the Lord destroyed everything from off the face of the earth; because of the wickedness of their deeds, and because of the blood which they had shed in the midst of the earth He destroyed everything.

DINOSAURS

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Scripture quotations taken from the NASB:

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Scripture quotations taken from the ESV:

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