There are different models or Atonement theories. Some of these views are not necessarily mutually exclusive and are simply equally valid images of the same event.
One reason for the various views is that the Bible reveals many truths about the atonement and it is hard, if not impossible, to find any single “theory” that fully encapsulates or explains the richness of Christ’s work of redemption. The Scriptures present a rich and multifaceted picture of our redemption, putting forth many interrelated truths concerning the atonement.
But any view that ignores man’s sinfulness, the substitutionary nature of the atonement, or the centrality and significance of the cross - is deficient at best and heretical at worst.