JESUS IN THE
Chiefly Christian theology a figure, episode, or symbolic factor resembling some future reality in such a way as to foreshadow or prefigure it. 1
A figure, representation, or symbol of something to come, such as an event in the Old Testament that foreshadows another in the New Testament. 1
One that is foreshadowed by or identified with an earlier symbol or type, such as a figure in the New Testament who has a counterpart in the Old Testament. 1
1 http:// www.thefreedictionary.com/ antitype
TYPES & ANTITYPES
It has been said of the Old and New Testaments:
The New is in the Old contained -
The Old is in the New explained
The New is in the Old concealed –
The Old is in the New revealed.
Jesus told the Jews that Moses wrote about him.
Your accuser is Moses, on whom your hopes are set. If you believed Moses, you would believe me, for he wrote about me. (Jn 5:45-46)
And after his resurrection, Jesus explained to his disciples that the writings of Moses spoke of him: (Luke 24:44-45)
This is what I told you while I was still with you: Everything must be fulfilled that is written about me in the Law of Moses, the Prophets and the Psalms.
Jesus told the two on the road to Emmaus that Moses and the prophets spoke of him (Luke 24:25-27 … And beginning with Moses and all the Prophets, he explained to them
what was said in all the Scriptures concerning himself.)
Paul told Festus and Agrippa
that Moses spoke of Christ’s death and resurrection (Acts 26:22-23).
I am saying nothing beyond what the prophets and Moses said would happen— that the Christ would suffer and, as the first to rise from the dead, would proclaim light to his own people and to the Gentiles.
Moses had foretold the coming of a future prophet (known as the Messiah) who must be obeyed by all. (Deut 18:17-19)
The LORD said to me: “… I will raise up for them a prophet like you from among their brothers… If anyone does not listen to my words that the prophet speaks in my name, I myself will call him to account.”
This is why Philip told Nathanael, “We have found the one Moses wrote about in the Law...” (John 1:45)
We saw that Peter says this prophecy of Moses was fulfilled in Jesus (Acts 3:19-24)
And Stephen uses this prophecy when he explains that Jesus is the prophet who, like Moses, faced rejection from his people. (Acts 7:37-39)
So let us continue looking at how Jesus was a prophet like Moses i.e. how Moses was a type of Christ.
A PROPHET LIKE MOSES
Num 12:3 Now Moses was a very humble man,
else on the face of the earth.
Jesus, although God in nature, humbled himself to become a man.
Phil 2:5-8 … Christ Jesus: Who, being in very nature God… he humbled himself and became obedient to death - even death on a cross!
Matt 11:29 Take my yoke upon you and learn from me, for I am gentle and humble in heart, and you will find rest for your souls.
He was the only one who could choose where he was to be born and yet he chose a manger, rather than a king’s palace where the Magi expected him to be (Matt 2). And he lived in Nazareth, a town despised even by other Galileans (John 1:46)
Matthew 21:5 “Tell the daughter of Zion, behold, your King comes to you, humble, and riding on a donkey…” (WEB)
Jesus could have got the disciples to wash his feet, but chose rather to wash theirs. (Jn 13:13-14)
Now that I, your Lord and Teacher, have washed your feet, you also should wash one another’s feet.
Moses faced opposition in his ministry (2 Tim 3:8 Just as Jannes and Jambres opposed Moses, so also these men oppose the truth…)
Jesus faced opposition in his ministry (Lk 11:53-54 When Jesus left there, the Pharisees and the teachers of the law began to oppose him fiercely and to besiege him with questions, waiting to catch him in something he might say.)
Miriam and Aaron spoke out against Moses (Num 12:1-2)
Has the LORD spoken only through Moses? Hasn’t he also spoken through us?
Korah, Dathan, Abiram and 250 leaders oppose Moses (Num 16)
You have gone too far! The whole community is holy, every one of them, and the LORD is with them. Why then do you set yourselves above the LORD’s assembly?
Jesus’ authority was continually questioned (Matt 21:23-27)
By what authority are you doing these things? And who gave you this authority?
Moses dealt with people who hardened their hearts (Ex 8:15 But when Pharaoh saw that there was relief, he hardened his heart and would not listen to Moses and Aaron…)
Jesus dealt with people who hardened their hearts (Mark 3:5 He looked around at them in anger and, deeply distressed at their stubborn hearts, said to the man, “Stretch out your hand.”)
For this people’s heart has become calloused;
they hardly hear with their ears, and they have closed their eyes. (Mt 13:15)
Moses felt keenly the ingratitude of his people. Note his plaintive plea as recorded in Numbers 11:12,14.
Did I conceive all these people? Did I give them birth? Why do you tell me to carry them in my arms, as a nurse carries an infant, to the land you promised on oath to their forefathers? … I cannot carry all these people by myself; the burden is too heavy for me.
So too Jesus felt keenly the ingratitude of his people. (Lk 13:34)
O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, you who kill the prophets and stone those sent to you, how often I have longed to gather your children together, as a hen gathers her chicks under her wings, but you were not willing!
Exodus 32:19-20 When Moses approached the camp and saw the calf and the dancing, his anger burned and he threw the tablets out of his hands, breaking them to pieces at the foot of the mountain. And he took the calf they had made and burned it in the fire; then he ground it to powder, scattered it on the water and made the Israelites drink it.
John 2:14-15 In the temple courts he found men selling cattle, sheep and doves, and others sitting at tables exchanging money. So he made a whip out of cords, and drove all from the temple area, both sheep and cattle; he scattered the coins of the money changers and overturned their tables.
Get these out of here! How dare you turn my Father’s house into a market!
Moses was the mouthpiece of God: “And Moses came and told the people all the words of the Lord” (Ex. 24:3).
Jesus was the mouthpiece of God: “In the past God spoke to our forefathers through the prophets… but in these last days he has spoken to us by his Son…” (Heb 1:1-2)
For I did not speak of my own accord, but the Father who sent me commanded me what to say and how to say it. (Jn 12:49)
The Israelites were baptized into Moses: “… our forefathers were all under the cloud and that they all passed through the sea. They were all baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea.” (1 Cor 10:1-2)
We are baptized in the name of Jesus: “So he ordered that they be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ.” (Acts 10:48)
Ex 34:29 When Moses came down from Mount Sinai … he was not aware that his face was radiant because he had spoken with the LORD.
Ex 34:30-35 When Aaron and all the Israelites saw Moses, his face was radiant, and they were afraid to come near him. But Moses called to them; so Aaron and all the leaders of the community came back to him, and he spoke to them. Afterward all the Israelites came near him, and he gave them all the commands the LORD had given him on Mount Sinai. When Moses finished speaking to them, he put a veil over his face. But whenever he entered the LORD’s presence to speak with him, he removed the veil until he came out. And when he came out and told the Israelites what he had been commanded, they saw that his face was radiant. Then Moses would put the veil back over his face until he went in to speak with the LORD.
As a man, Jesus’ glory was veiled - “There he was transfigured before them. His face shone like the sun, and his clothes became as white as the light.” (Matt 17:2)
Before the world began, Jesus existed in glory with the Father:
John 17:5 And now, Father, glorify me in your presence with the glory I had with you before the world began.
Peter, James and John had a brief glimpse of Jesus’ glory when it was unveiled on the mountain of Transfiguration. And so John writes:
John 1:14 …We have seen his glory, the glory of the One and Only, who came from the Father…
And Peter says of the incident:
2 Peter 1:16-18 We did not follow cleverly invented stories when we told you about the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but we were eyewitnesses of his majesty. For he received honour and glory from God the Father when the voice came to him from the Majestic Glory, saying, “This is my Son, whom I love; with him I am well pleased.” We ourselves heard this voice that came from heaven when we were with him on the sacred mountain.
Jesus told Clopas and his companion on the road to Emmaus that only after suffering, would the Messiah enter his glory.
Luke 24:25 He said to them, “How foolish you are, and how slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken! Did not the Christ have to suffer these things and then enter his glory?” And beginning with Moses and all the Prophets, he explained to them what was said in all the Scriptures concerning himself.
Heb 2:9 But we see Jesus, who was made a little lower than the angels, now crowned with glory and honour because he suffered death, so that by the grace of God he might taste death for everyone.
2 Cor 3:7-13 Now if the ministry that brought death, which was engraved in letters on stone, came with glory, so that the Israelites could not look steadily at the face of Moses because of its glory, fading though it was, will not the ministry of the Spirit be even more glorious? If the ministry that condemns men is glorious, how much more glorious is the ministry that brings righteousness! For what was glorious has no glory now in comparison with the surpassing glory. And if what was fading away came with glory, how much greater is the glory of that which lasts! Therefore, since we have such a hope, we are very bold. We are not like Moses, who would put a veil over his face to keep the Israelites from gazing at it while the radiance was fading away.
2 Cor 3:14-18 But their minds were made dull, for to this day the same veil remains when the old covenant is read. It has not been removed, because only in Christ is it taken away. Even to this day when Moses is read, a veil covers their hearts. But whenever anyone turns to the Lord, the veil is taken away. Now the Lord is the Spirit, and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is freedom. And we, who with unveiled faces all reflect the Lord’s glory, are being transformed into his likeness with ever-increasing glory, which comes from the Lord, who is the Spirit.
Moses’ glory was temporary and the Israelites couldn’t bear to look at what was fading. From this a parallel is drawn to the Jews’ view of the Law. They refused to see that it had faded away because their hearts were veiled.
Moses sent 12 men to explore Canaan (Numbers 13)
Jesus sent 12 men to preach deliverance: “He called his twelve disciples to him and gave them authority to drive out evil spirits and to heal every disease and sickness.” (Matt 10)
Moses appointed 70 men to assist in his ministry:
Num 11:16-17 The LORD said to Moses: “Bring me seventy of Israel’s elders who are known to you as leaders and officials among the people. Have them come to the Tent of Meeting, that they may stand there with you … I will take of the Spirit that is on you and put the Spirit on them. They will help you carry the burden of the people so that you will not have to carry it alone.
So too Christ selected 70 men to assist in his ministry:
Luke 10:1 Now after this the Lord appointed seventy others, and sent them in pairs ahead of Him to every city and place where He Himself was going to come. (NASB)
Moses rewarded God’s servants (the Levites):
Num 7:3-5 They brought as their gifts before the LORD six covered carts and twelve oxen—an ox from each leader and a cart from every two. These they presented before the tabernacle. The LORD said to Moses, “Accept these from them, that they may be used in the work at the Tent of Meeting. Give them to the Levites as each man’s work requires.”
In like manner, Jesus has promised to reward God’s servants as well:
Rev 22:12 “Behold, I am coming soon! My reward is with me, and I will give to everyone according to what he has done.”
GIVING OF REWARDS
Moses blessed the people. “So Moses blessed them” (Ex 39:43)
So too we read of Jesus: “When he had led them out to the vicinity of Bethany, he lifted up his hands and blessed them. While he was blessing them, he left them and was taken up into heaven.” (Luke 24:50-51)
Moses didn’t leave his people comfortless, but gave them a successor – Joshua. (Deut 31:7-8)
Be strong and courageous, for you must go with this people into the land… The LORD himself goes before you and will be with you; he will never leave you nor forsake you.
Likewise Jesus his people comfortless, but gave them a successor – the Holy Spirit. (John 14:16-18)
And I will ask the Father, and he will give you another Counsellor to be with you forever the Spirit of truth… I will not leave you as orphans; I will come to you.
Moses gave God’s people an inheritance: “… the land that Moses gave you” (Josh. 1:14). In Christ, believers “have obtained an inheritance” (Eph 1:11 NASB).
Moses led the Israelites to the Promised Land on earth, but in Jesus we have an eternal and imperishable inheritance in heaven.
1 Pet 1:3-5 Praise be to the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ! In his great mercy he has given us new birth into a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, and into an inheritance that can never perish, spoil or fade - kept in heaven for you, who through faith are shielded by God’s power until the coming of the salvation that is ready to be revealed in the last time.
Moses had a “second coming” to earth in the New Testament - on the Mount of Transfiguration (Matt 17:3).
This is a type of Jesus’ anticipated second coming to earth.
Moses provided Israel with water. (Ex 17:6 “… Strike the rock, and water will come out of it for the people to drink.”)
If you knew the gift of God and who it is that asks you for a drink, you would have asked him and he would have given you living water.
Jesus was the antitype of Moses, where he gives “living water” to those who thirst spiritually. (John 4:10)
And so in John 4:13-14 Jesus goes on to tell the Samaritan woman at Sychar:
“Everyone who drinks this water will be thirsty again, but whoever drinks the water I give him will never thirst. Indeed, the water I give him will become in him a spring of water welling up to eternal life.”
John 7:37-39 On the last and greatest day of the Feast, Jesus stood and said in a loud voice, “If anyone is thirsty, let him come to me and drink. Whoever believes in me, as the Scripture has said, streams of living water will flow from within him.” By this he meant the Spirit, whom those who believed in him were later to receive.
Moses fed the Israelites with manna from heaven.
BREAD FROM HEAVEN
The manna was called “bread from heaven”.
Exodus 16:4 Then the LORD said to Moses, “I will rain down bread from heaven for you. The people are to go out each day and gather enough for that day…”
Ex 16:14-15 When the dew was gone, thin flakes like frost on the ground appeared on the desert floor. When the Israelites saw it, they said to each other, “What is it?” For they did not know what it was. Moses said to them, “It is the bread the LORD has given you to eat.”
Moses fed the Israelites with manna, which was physical “bread from heaven”. But Jesus was the spiritual, living and “true bread from heaven”.
John 6:30-35 So they asked him, “What miraculous sign then will you give that we may see it and believe you? What will you do? Our forefathers ate the manna in the desert; as it is written: ‘He gave them bread from heaven to eat.’”
Jesus said to them, “I tell you the truth, it is not Moses who has given you the bread from heaven, but it is my Father who gives you the true bread from heaven. For the bread of God is he who comes down from heaven and gives life to the world.”
“Sir,” they said, “from now on give us this bread.”
Then Jesus declared, “I am the bread of life. He who comes to me will never go hungry, and he who believes in me will never be thirsty.
Your forefathers ate the manna in the desert, yet they died. But here is the bread that comes down from heaven, which a man may eat and not die. I am the living bread that came down from heaven. If anyone eats of this bread, he will live forever. (John 6:48-51)
Moses completed the work the Lord gave him:
“Moses did everything just as the Lord commanded him… And so Moses finished the work.” (Ex 40: 16,33)
Again he prefigures Jesus who said, “I have brought you glory on earth by completing the work you gave me to do.” (John 17:4). And on the cross Jesus declared, “It is finished”. (John 19:30)
Despite all the furnishings in the Old Testament temple, there were no chairs. While the priest’s work was never finished – he could never sit down - we read of Jesus:
Heb 8:1 The point of what we are saying is this: we do have such a high priest, who sat down at the right hand of the throne of the majesty in heaven
Moses was commended for his faithfulness in God’s service.
Heb 3:5 Moses was faithful as a servant in all God’s house, testifying to what would be said in the future.
So too, Jesus was faithful in service to God – but as a son, not a servant:
Heb 3:6 But Christ is faithful as a son over God’s house.
Heb 2:17 For this reason he had to be made like his brothers in every way, in order that he might become a merciful and faithful high priest in service to God, and that he might make atonement for the sins of the people.
We read of Moses’ death and burial: “And Moses the servant of the LORD died there in Moab… He buried him in Moab, in the valley opposite Beth Peor…” (Deut 34:5-6)
But Moses did not stay in his burial place. We find Michael disputing with Satan over Moses’ body:
Jude 9 But even the archangel Michael, when he was disputing with the devil about the body of Moses, did not dare to bring a slanderous accusation against him, but said, “The Lord rebuke you!”
And in the Gospels, a resurrected Moses appears along with Elijah on the Mount of Transfiguration:
Matt 17:3 Just then there appeared before them Moses and Elijah, talking with Jesus.
And many believe that Moses will be one of the two witnesses spoken of in Revelation.
In this way Moses again prefigured the resurrection of Jesus, who also left an empty tomb behind. (Mark 16:1-6)
Don’t be alarmed. You are looking for Jesus the Nazarene, who was crucified. He has risen! He is not here. See the place where they laid him.
Moses was a judge (Ex 18:13 The next day Moses took his seat to serve as judge for the people, and they stood around him from morning till evening.)
While Moses was a judge of Israel, Jesus has been appointed as judge of all men by the Father.
Acts 10:42 He commanded us to preach to the people and to testify that he is the one whom God appointed as judge of the living and the dead.
2 Tim 4:1 In the presence of God and of Christ Jesus, who will judge the living and the dead...
John 5:22-23 Moreover, the Father judges no one, but has entrusted all judgment to the Son, that all may honour the Son just as they honour the Father.
John 5:27 And he has given him authority to judge because he is the Son of Man.
Acts 17:31 For he has set a day when he will judge the world with justice by the man he has appointed. He has given proof of this to all men by raising him from the dead.
Rom 2:16 This will take place on the day when God will judge men’s secrets through Jesus Christ, as my gospel declares.
But Jesus was not just a prophet like Moses – he was greater than Moses.
Heb 3:3 Jesus has been found worthy of greater honour than Moses, just as the builder of a house has greater honour than the house itself…
Jesus gave us salvation and forgiveness of sin, which was not possible with the Old Covenant of the Law of Moses:
Acts 13:38-39 Therefore, my brothers, I want you to know that through Jesus the forgiveness of sins is proclaimed to you. Through him everyone who believes is justified from everything you could not be justified from by the law of Moses.
GREATER THAN MOSES
Paul tells the Romans that the Old Covenant of Law could only justify the man who could keep the Law without fault (something that is impossible for us as sinners)
Rom 10:5 Moses describes in this way the righteousness that is by the law: “The man who does these things will live by them.”
But Paul goes on to say that the New Covenant of Grace justifies those who put their faith in Christ and confess their faith publically:
Rom 10:6-13 But the righteousness that is by faith says… “The word is near you; it is in your mouth and in your heart,” that is, the word of faith we are proclaiming: That if you confess with your mouth, “Jesus is Lord,” and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. For it is with your heart that you believe and are justified, and it is with your mouth that you confess and are saved… for, “Everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved.”
Moses is closely associated with Mount Sinai, the mountain where he received the Old Covenant (i.e. the Law) between God and his people.
So Moses and the Old Covenant are linked to a physical Mount Sinai, which was a mountain associated with fear and judgement:
Heb 11:18-22 You have not come to a mountain that can be touched and that is burning with fire; to darkness, gloom and storm; to a trumpet blast or to such a voice speaking words that those who heard it begged that no further word be spoken to them, because they could not bear what was commanded: “If even an animal touches the mountain, it must be stoned.” The sight was so terrifying that Moses said, “I am trembling with fear.”
But Jesus and the New Covenant are linked to the heavenly Mount Zion, which was a place associated with rejoicing and “righteous men made perfect”:
Heb 11:23-24 But you have come to Mount Zion, to the heavenly Jerusalem, the city of the living God. You have come to thousands upon thousands of angels in joyful assembly, to the church of the firstborn, whose names are written in heaven. You have come to God, the judge of all men, to the spirits of righteous men made perfect, to Jesus the mediator of a new covenant…
Paul shows in Romans that Mount Sinai of the Old Covenant speaks of slavery, while the heavenly Jerusalem (i.e. Mount Zion) speaks of the freedom of the New Covenant.
Rom 4:24-31 These things may be taken figuratively, for the women represent two covenants. One covenant is from Mount Sinai and bears children who are to be slaves: This is Hagar. Now Hagar stands for Mount Sinai in Arabia and corresponds to the present city of Jerusalem, because she is in slavery with her children. But the Jerusalem that is above is free, and she is our mother… Therefore, brothers, we are not children of the slave woman, but of the free woman.
away, calling it the ‘tent of meeting.’ Anyone inquiring of the LORD would go to the tent of meeting outside the camp.” (Exodus 33:7)
PLACE OUTSIDE THE CAMP
Moses had a place outside the camp: “Now Moses used to take a tent and pitch it outside the camp some distance
Hebrews 13:11-12 The high priest carries the blood of animals into the Most Holy Place as a sin offering, but the bodies are burned outside the camp. And so Jesus also suffered outside the city gate to make the people holy through his own blood.
the camp was a
place of shame where
the bodies of the
sacrifice animals were
burnt. And so Jesus
suffered “outside the camp”.
If we truly love Jesus, we must go to where He was willing to go – outside the camp.
‘Outside the camp’ is where the lepers were kept.
‘Outside the camp’ is where murderers were sent.
‘Outside the camp’ is where the beggar begged as the apostles walked through the gate.
‘Outside the camp’ was where all who were to be separated from society at large were to be kept.
‘Outside the camp’ is where we were called to ‘go to him’ and ‘bear the reproach he endured’ – death. Death to our comfort, death to our desires, death to our reputation. 1
1 Jim Tompkins http:// mudpreacher.org/ tag/ joseph-aline/
And just as those who wanted to inquire of the LORD went outside of the camp to Moses, so we too - in humility - meet Jesus outside the camp at the place of disgrace, death and humility:
Heb 13:13 Let us, then, go to him outside the camp, bearing the disgrace he bore.
James 4:10 Humble yourselves before the Lord, and he will lift you up.
James 4:6 But he gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says: “God opposes the proud but gives grace to the humble.”
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Used by permission. All rights reserved worldwide.
Scripture quotations taken from the NASB:
New American Standard Bible®,
Copyright © 1960, 1962, 1963, 1968, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1975, 1977, 1995 by The Lockman Foundation
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Scripture quotations are taken from the ESV:
Scripture quotations are from The Holy Bible, English Standard Version® (ESV®), copyright © 2001 by Crossway, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers. Used by permission. All rights reserved.
Jesus in the Old Testament – Part 1
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Jesus in the Old Testament – Part 2
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Jesus in the Old Testament – Part 3a
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