JESUS IN THE
Chiefly Christian theology a figure, episode, or symbolic factor resembling some future reality in such a way as to foreshadow or prefigure it. 1
A figure, representation, or symbol of something to come, such as an event in the Old Testament that foreshadows another in the New Testament. 1
One that is foreshadowed by or identified with an earlier symbol or type, such as a figure in the New Testament who has a counterpart in the Old Testament. 1
1 http:// www.thefreedictionary.com/ antitype
TYPES & ANTITYPES
It has been said of the Old and New Testaments:
The New is in the Old contained -
The Old is in the New explained
The New is in the Old concealed –
The Old is in the New revealed.
The events in the Old Testament serve both as examples and warnings.
Paul says the following about Israel’s wanderings in the wilderness:
1 Cor 10:11 These things happened to them as examples and were written down as warnings for us, on whom the fulfillment of the ages has come.
Moses wrote the first 5 books in the OT; Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers & Deuteronomy.
In Judaism they are known as “The Torah”. They are referred to in the NT as “The Law” and known today as the Pentateuch (from the Greek term “pent teuchos” meaning “five-volumed book”).
Jesus told the Jews that Moses wrote about him.
Your accuser is Moses, on whom your hopes are set. If you believed Moses, you would believe me, for he wrote about me. (Jn 5:45-46)
After his resurrection, Jesus explained to his disciples that the writings of Moses, the prophets and David spoke of him: (Luke 24:44-45 … Then he opened their minds so they could understand the Scriptures)
This is what I told you while I was still with you: Everything must be fulfilled that is written about me in the Law of Moses, the Prophets and the Psalms.
Jesus told the two on the road to Emmaus that Moses and the prophets spoke of him (Luke 24:25-27 … And beginning with Moses and all the Prophets, he explained to them
what was said in all the Scriptures concerning himself.)
How foolish you are, and how slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken! Did not the Christ have to suffer these things and then enter his glory?
Let us pray that our hearts too will be “burning within us” as we see Jesus not just in the writings of Moses, but prefigured in Moses’ own life. (Lu 24:32)
Were not our hearts burning within us while he talked with us on the road and opened the Scriptures to us?
Moses had foretold the coming of a future prophet (known as the Messiah) who must be obeyed by all. (Deut 18:17-19)
The LORD said to me: “What they say is good. I will raise up for them a prophet like you from among their brothers; I will put my words in his mouth, and he will tell them everything I command him. If anyone does not listen to my words that the prophet speaks in my name, I myself will call him to account.”
This is why Philip told Nathanael, “We have found the one Moses wrote about in the Law...” (John 1:45)
We have found the one Moses wrote about in the Law, and about whom the prophets also wrote - Jesus of Nazareth ...
After healing the cripple man at the temple, Peter tells the people that this prophecy of Moses was fulfilled in Jesus.
… the Christ, who has been appointed for you—even Jesus… For Moses said, “The Lord your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among your own people…”
Here is the context of Peter’s sermon:
Acts 3:19-24 Repent, then, and turn to God, so that your sins may be wiped out, that times of refreshing may come from the Lord, and that he may send the Christ, who has been appointed for you—even Jesus. He must remain in heaven until the time comes for God to restore everything, as he promised long ago through his holy prophets. For Moses said, ‘The Lord your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among your own people; you must listen to everything he tells you. Anyone who does not listen to him will be completely cut off from among his people.’ “Indeed, all the prophets from Samuel on, as many as have spoken, have foretold these days.
A PROPHET LIKE MOSES
Stephen quotes the same prophecy and shows how Jesus is the prophet who, like Moses, faced rejection from his people. (Acts 7:37-39)
This is that Moses who told the Israelites, ‘God will send you a prophet like me from your own people.’ … But our fathers refused to obey him. Instead, they rejected him…
The Old Testament (Covenant) contains shadows – the New Testament has the realities:
Heb 10:1 The law is only a shadow of the good things that are coming—not the realities themselves.
Col 3:16-17 Therefore do not let anyone judge you by what you eat or drink, or with regard to a religious festival, a New Moon celebration or a Sabbath day. These are a shadow of the things that were to come; the reality, however, is found in Christ.
Let us consider how Jesus was a prophet like Moses i.e. how Moses was a type of Christ.
Moses was born when Israel was under foreign domination (Egyptian slavery)
Jesus was born when Israel was under foreign domination (Roman occupation of Israel).
Pharaoh tried to destroy Moses at birth.
HUNTED BY A KING
The king of
Egypt said to
“When you help
them on the
stool, if it is
a boy, kill him…”
And Herod tried to destroy Jesus at birth. (Matt 2:16 … Herod … was furious, and he gave orders to kill all the boys in Bethlehem and its vicinity who were two years old and under…)
Moses was spared the king’s wrath. (Ex 2:6 She opened it and saw the baby. He was crying, and she felt sorry for him.)
This is one of the Hebrew babies
Get up, take the child and his mother and escape to Egypt. Stay there until I tell you, for Herod is going to search for the child to kill him.
Jesus was spared the wrath of King Herod. (Matt 2)
Moses spent his childhood in Egypt. (Acts 7:20-21 “At that time Moses was born ... Pharaoh’s daughter took him and brought him up as her own son.”
CHILDHOOD IN EGYPT
Jesus was also spent his early childhood in Egypt.
Matt 2:14-15 So he got up, took the child and his mother during the night and left for Egypt, where he stayed until the death of Herod. And so was fulfilled
what the Lord had said through the prophet: “Out of Egypt I called my son.”
Moses was willing to leave the king’s palace in order to serve his people and deliver them from bondage.
LEFT THE PALACE
Jesus also voluntarily relinquished his riches, glory, and ‘palace’ to serve his people and deliver them from bondage.
Heb 11:24-26 By faith Moses, when he had grown up, refused to be known as the son of Pharaoh’s daughter. He chose to be mistreated along with the people of God rather than to enjoy the pleasures of sin for a short time. He regarded disgrace for the sake of Christ as of greater value than the treasures of Egypt, because he was looking ahead to his reward.
Phil 2:6-7 Who, being in very nature God, did not consider equality with God something to be grasped, but made himself nothing, taking the very nature
of a servant, being made in human likeness.
Moses was not ashamed to be identified with his Hebrew brothers who were slaves. (Ex 2:11 One day, after Moses
had grown up, he went out to where his own people were and watched them at their hard labour.)
Jesus too is not ashamed to be identified with his human brothers who were enslaved by sin.
Heb 2:11 Both the one who makes men holy and those
who are made holy are of the same family.
So Jesus is not ashamed to call them brothers.
PERIOD OF SECLUSION
Before he started his real mission, Moses spent many years in obscurity as a shepherd. (Ex 3:1 Now Moses was tending the flock of Jethro…)
Before he started his real mission, Jesus spent many years in obscurity as a carpenter. (Mk 6:3 “Isn’t this the carpenter?”)
TIME IN THE WILDERNESS
Moses spent time in the wilderness before taking on his calling. (Exodus 3:1 … he led the flock to the far side of the desert and came to Horeb, the mountain of God.)
Jesus spent time in the wilderness before taking on
his calling. (Matt 4:1 Then Jesus was led by the
Spirit into the desert to be tempted by the devil.)
40 DAY FAST
Ex 34:28 Moses was there with the Lord forty days and forty nights without eating bread or drinking water …
Jesus also fasted for 40 days in the wilderness (Matt 4:2 After fasting forty days and forty nights, he was hungry.)
Moses was a teacher (Deut 4:5)
See, I have taught you decrees and laws as the LORD my God commanded me, so that you may follow them in the land you are entering to take possession of it.
Jesus was a teacher (Matt 7:28-29 … the crowds were amazed at his teaching, because he taught as one who had authority, and not as their teachers of the law.)
Moses is the first one in the OT to perform miracles.
Acts 7:36 He led them out of Egypt and did wonders and miraculous signs in Egypt, at the Red Sea and for forty years in the desert.
Deut 34:10-12 Since then, no prophet has risen in Israel like Moses… who did all those miraculous signs and wonders … For no one has ever shown the mighty power or performed the awesome deeds that Moses did in the sight of all Israel.
Jesus is the first in the NT to perform miracles. (Mt 11:4-5)
Go back and report to John what you hear and see: The blind receive sight, the lame walk, those who have leprosy are cured, the deaf hear, the dead are raised, and the good news is preached to the poor.
Moses performed miraculous signs but Jesus performed more miracles than anyone else in history. Peter said: “Jesus of Nazareth was a man accredited by God to you by miracles, wonders and signs, which God did among you through him, as you yourselves know.” (Acts 2:22)
The mighty miracles of Jesus were evidence that he was the prophet to come, spoken of by Moses:
John 6:14 After the people saw the miraculous sign that Jesus did, they began to say, “Surely this is the Prophet who is to come into the world.”
They were also God’s stamp of approval on his ministry. And so Nicodemus says to him, “Rabbi, we know you are a teacher who has come from God. For no one could perform the miraculous signs you are doing if God were not with him.” (John 3:2)
Even his enemies grudgingly admitted his miraculous
powers, with the chief priests and Pharisees saying “Here is this man performing many miraculous signs.” (John 11:47)
The miracles were part of the evidence given by God so that people would put their faith in Jesus:
John 2:23 … many people saw the miraculous signs he was doing and believed in his name.
John 14:11 Believe me when I say that I am in the Father and the Father is in me; or at least believe on the evidence of the miracles themselves.
In fact all his miracles are not even recorded:
John 20:30-31 Jesus did many other miraculous signs in the presence of his disciples, which are not recorded in this book. But these are written that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that by believing you may have life in his name.
And the greatest miracle of all was his resurrection from the dead, which remains today as the greatest testimony that Jesus is the Son of God.
Rom 1:4 and who through the Spirit of holiness was declared with power to be the Son of God by his resurrection from the dead: Jesus Christ our Lord.
Matt 12:39-40 He answered, “A wicked and adulterous generation asks for a miraculous sign! But none will be given it except the sign of the prophet Jonah. For as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of a huge fish, so the Son of Man will be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth.”
Moses was initially officially refused when he tried to help his enslaved people
REJECTED BY HIS PEOPLE
Who made you ruler and judge over us?
Acts 7:35 “This is the same Moses whom they had rejected with the words, ‘Who made you ruler and judge?’”
Jesus speaks of his own rejection by his people
in the parable of the minas (Luke 19:14).
But his subjects hated him and sent a delegation after him to say, “We don’t want this man to be our king.”
This prophecy was fulfilled shortly afterwards. (Jn 19:15)
We have no king but Caesar
Shall I crucify your king?
Stephen relates to the Sanhedrin how Moses faced rejection from his people.
Acts 7:25 Moses thought that his own people would realize that God was using him to rescue them, but they did not.
Acts 7:37-39 “This is that Moses who told the Israelites, ‘God will send you a prophet like me from your own people.’ He was in the assembly in the desert, with the angel who spoke to him on Mount Sinai, and with our fathers; and he received living words to pass on to us. But our fathers refused to obey him. Instead, they rejected him and in their hearts turned back to Egypt.”
The point Stephen is making is that, just as Moses and all God’s prophets had faced rejection, the people were now rejecting God’s very Messiah and deliverer.
Acts 7:51-53 “You stiff-necked people, with uncircumcised hearts and ears! You are just like your fathers: You always resist the Holy Spirit! Was there ever a prophet your fathers did not persecute? They even killed those who predicted the coming of the Righteous One. And now you have betrayed and murdered him—you who have received the law that was put into effect through angels but have not obeyed it.”
And so presently most of his own people have rejected Jesus.
John 1:11 He came to that which was his own, but his own did not receive him.
John 15:24-25 If I had not done among them what no one else did, they would not be guilty of sin. But now they have seen these miracles, and yet they have hated both me and my Father. But this is to fulfil what is written in their Law: ‘They hated me without reason.’
After being rejected by his own people, Moses went to Midian (Gentiles).
Acts 7:27-29 “But the man who was mistreating the other pushed Moses aside and said, ‘Who made you ruler and judge over us? Do you want to kill me as you killed the Egyptian yesterday?’ When Moses heard this, he fled to Midian, where he settled as a foreigner…
So when Moses tried to save his own people they rejected him, but the Gentiles accepted him. When he stood up for the Midianites (as he had attempted to do for his fellow Israelites) they appreciated his efforts and accepted him as one of their own.
ACCEPTED BY GENTILES
Ex 2:16-17 Now a priest of Midian had seven daughters, and they came to draw water and fill the troughs to water their father’s flock. Some shepherds came along and drove them away, but Moses got up and came to their rescue and watered their flock.
The Gentile Midianites show gratitude to Moses and, although a foreigner, he is accepted into their community:
Ex 2:18-22 When the girls returned to Reuel their father, he asked them, “Why have you returned so early today?”
They answered, “An Egyptian rescued us from the shepherds. He even drew water for us and watered the flock.”
“And where is he?” he asked his daughters. “Why did you leave him? Invite him to have something to eat.”
Moses agreed to stay with the man, who gave his daughter Zipporah to Moses in marriage. Zipporah gave birth to a son, and Moses named him Gershom, saying, “I have become an alien in a foreign land.”
So too when Jesus was rejected by Israel, the Gentiles accepted Jesus in large numbers as their saviour and deliverer from slavery.
Acts 13:45-46 When the Jews saw the crowds, they were filled with jealousy and talked abusively against what Paul was saying. Then Paul and Barnabas answered them boldly: “We had to speak the word of God to you first. Since you reject it and do not consider yourselves worthy of eternal life, we now turn to the Gentiles.”
But when the tenants saw the son, they said to each other, “This is the heir. Come, let’s kill him…”
Jesus prophesied his rejection by Israel and acceptance by the Gentiles in his parable about the tenants. (Matt 21)
He will bring those wretches to a wretched end, and he will rent the vineyard to other tenants, who will give him his share of the crop at harvest time.
Matt 21:39-43 So they took him and threw him out of the vineyard and killed him. Therefore, when the owner of the vineyard comes, what will he do to those tenants?
Have you never read in the Scriptures: “The stone the builders rejected has become the capstone; the Lord has done this, and it is marvellous in our eyes”? Therefore I tell you that the kingdom of God will be taken away from you and given to a people who will produce its fruit.
Later on, Moses’ people eventually turned to him as their saviour and deliverer from slavery.
Acts 7:35 “This is the same Moses whom they had rejected with the words, ‘Who made you ruler and judge?’ He was sent to be their ruler and deliverer by God himself…”
In this aspect Moses was again a clear picture of the future Messiah - Jesus.
ACCEPTED BY HIS PEOPLE
Ultimately Jesus’ own people will also accept him.
Zech 12:10 “They will look on me, the one they have pierced, and they will mourn for him as one mourns for an only child, and grieve bitterly for him as one grieves for a firstborn son.”
Rom 11:11-27 Again I ask: Did they stumble so as to fall beyond recovery? Not at all! … I do not want you to be ignorant of this mystery, brothers, so that you may not be conceited: Israel has experienced a hardening in part until the full number of the Gentiles has come in. And so all Israel will be saved, as it is written: “The deliverer will come from Zion; he will turn godlessness away from Jacob. And this is my covenant with them when I take away their sins.”
Oh, what a great sin these people have committed! They have made themselves gods of gold. But now, please forgive their sin—but if not, then blot me out of the book you have written. (Ex 32:31-32)
Moses was an intercessor for the Israelites. Jesus intercedes to the Father on our behalf:
1 John 2:1 My dear children, I write this to you so that you will not sin. But if anybody does sin, we have one who speaks to the Father in our defence - Jesus Christ, the Righteous One.
Heb 7:25 Therefore he is able to save completely those who come to God through him, because he always lives to intercede for them.
Moses was the mediator of God’s Old Covenant of Law:
Gal 3:19 ... The law was put into effect through angels by a mediator.
But no one has kept the Old Covenant of Law in its entirety. Jesus said, “Has not Moses given you the law? Yet not one of you keeps the law.” (John 7:19)
So Jesus as the antitype of Moses, became the mediator of the New and better Covenant of Grace.
John 1:17 For the law was given through Moses; grace and truth came through Jesus Christ.
Heb 7:22 … Jesus has become the guarantee of a better covenant.
Heb 8:6 But the ministry Jesus has received is as superior to theirs as the covenant of which he is mediator is superior to the old one, and it is founded on better promises.
Moses introduced the sacrifice of the Passover lamb
(Heb 11:28 By faith he kept the Passover and the
sprinkling of blood, so that the destroyer of the
firstborn would not touch the firstborn of Israel.)
A PASSOVER LAMB
Jesus was the antitype of the Passover lamb (John 1:29)
Look, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world!
Moses was called by God to emancipate His people from slavery (Ex 3:9-10)
DELIVERER FROM SLAVERY
And now the cry of the Israelites has reached me, and I have seen the way the Egyptians are oppressing them. So now, go. I am sending you… to bring my people… out of Egypt.
I tell you the truth, everyone who sins is a slave to sin. Now a slave has no permanent place in the family, but a son belongs to it forever. So if the Son sets you free, you will be free indeed.
Jesus came to emancipate us from slavery to sin (Jn 8:34-36)
God told Moses, “I have indeed seen the oppression of my people in Egypt. I have heard their groaning and have come down to set them free. Now come, I will send you back to Egypt.” (Acts 7:34)
Paul writes of the salvation through Jesus:
Rom 6:17-18 But thanks be to God that, though you used to be slaves to sin, you wholeheartedly obeyed the form of teaching to which you were entrusted. You have been set free from sin and have become slaves to righteousness.
Rom 6:19-23 I put this in human terms because you are weak in your natural selves. Just as you used to offer the parts of your body in slavery to impurity and to ever-increasing wickedness, so now offer them in slavery to righteousness leading to holiness. When you were slaves to sin, you were free from the control of righteousness. What benefit did you reap at that time from the things you are now ashamed of? Those things result in death! But now that you have been set free from sin and have become slaves to God, the benefit you reap leads to holiness, and the result is eternal life. For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.
Maybe today you are still a slave to sin: drunkenness (or other substance abuse), lust, thieving, hatred, lying or covetousness (love of money). Jesus said he came “to preach deliverance to the captives” (Luke 4:18 KJV).
The Spirit of the Lord is upon me … He has sent me to proclaim release to the captives… (NASB)
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Jesus in the Old Testament – Part 1
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Jesus in the Old Testament – Part 2
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